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Below we have included a list of references that one can use to investigate further the study of Brainwave Entrainment. If you would like more information outside of the scope of this list, we recommend a Public Library to search their private database collection.

Brainwave Entrainment References:

  1. a b Oster G (1973). “Auditory beats in the brain”. Sci. Am. 229 (4): 94–102.doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1073-94PMID 4727697.
  2. a b Hutchison, Michael M. (1986). Megabrain: new tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion. New York: W. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04880-3.
  3. ^ http://pt.wkhealth.com/pt/re/emmednews/abstract.00000524-200509000-00006.htm[dead link]
  4. ^ Hemispheric-synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control, Jan 2000, Kliempt, Ruta, Ogston, Landeck & Martay
  5. ^ Blauert, J.: Spatial hearing – the psychophysics of human sound localization; MIT Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts (1983), ch. 2.4
  6. ^ Slatky, Harald (1992): Algorithms for direction specific Processing of Sound Signals – the Realization of a binaural Cocktail-Party-Processor-System, Dissertation, Ruhr-University Bochum, ch. 3
  7. ^ “My Big TOE” book 1, Thomas Campbell, p79 ISBN 978-0972509404
  8. ^ Spitzer MW, Semple MN (1998). “Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity”. J. Neurophysiol. 80 (6): 3062–76.PMID 9862906.
  9. ^ Thaut MH (2003). “Neural basis of rhythmic timing networks in the human brain”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.999: 364–73. doi:10.1196/annals.1284.044PMID 14681157.

10.  ^ Barr DF, Mullin TA, Herbert PS. (1977). “Application of binaural beat phenomenon with aphasic patients”.Arch Otolaryngol. 103 (4): 192–194. PMID 849195.

11.  ^ Gerken GM, Moushegian G, Stillman RD, Rupert AL (1975). “Human frequency-following responses to monaural and binaural stimuli”. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 38 (4): 379–86.doi:10.1016/0013-4694(75)90262-XPMID 46818.

12.  ^ Dobie RA, Norton SJ (1980). “Binaural interaction in human auditory evoked potentials”.Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 49 (3-4): 303–13. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(80)90224-2PMID 6158406.

13.  ^ Moushegian G, Rupert AL, Stillman RD (1978). “Evaluation of frequency-following potentials in man: masking and clinical studies”. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 45 (6): 711–18.doi:10.1016/0013-4694(78)90139-6PMID 84739.

14.  ^ Smith JC, Marsh JT, Greenberg S, Brown WS (1978). “Human auditory frequency-following responses to a missing fundamental”. Science 201 (4356): 639–41. doi:10.1126/science.675250PMID 675250.

15.  ^ Smith JC, Marsh JT, Brown WS (1975). “Far-field recorded frequency-following responses: evidence for the locus of brainstem sources”. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 39 (5): 465–72.doi:10.1016/0013-4694(75)90047-4PMID 52439.

16.  ^ Yamada O, Yamane H, Kodera K (1977). “Simultaneous recordings of the brain stem response and the frequency-following response to low-frequency tone”. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology43 (3): 362–70. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(77)90259-0PMID 70337.

17.  ^ Cvetkovic D, Simpson D, Cosic I (2006). “Influence of sinusoidally modulated visual stimuli at extremely low frequency range on the human EEG activity”. Conference proceedings : … Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 1: 1311–4. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259565PMID 17945633.

18.  ^ “[Abstract The Induced Rhythmic Oscillations of Neural Activity in the Human Brain"]. Retrieved 2007-11-14.

19.  ^ Schwarz DW, Taylor P (2005). “Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats”.Clinical Neurophysiology 116 (3): 658–68. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2004.09.014PMID 15721080.

20.  ^ Rogers LJ, Walter DO (1981). “Methods for finding single generators, with application to auditory driving of the human EEG by complex stimuli”. J. Neurosci. Methods 4 (3): 257–65. doi:10.1016/0165-0270(81)90037-6PMID 7300432.

21.  ^ Lane JD, Kasian SJ, Owens JE, Marsh GR (1998). “Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood”. Physiol. Behav. 63 (2): 249–52. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00436-8PMID 9423966.

22.  ^ Beatty J, Greenberg A, Deibler WP, O’Hanlon JF (1974). “Operant control of occipital theta rhythm affects performance in a radar monitoring task”. Science 183 (127): 871–3. doi:10.1126/science.183.4127.871.PMID 4810845.

23.  ^ Menning H, Roberts LE, Pantev C (2000). “Plastic changes in the auditory cortex induced by intensive frequency discrimination training”. Neuroreport 11 (4): 817–22. doi:10.1097/00001756-200003200-00032PMID 10757526.

24.  ^ Gottselig JM, Brandeis D, Hofer-Tinguely G, Borbély AA, Achermann P (2004). “Human central auditory plasticity associated with tone sequence learning”Learn. Mem. 11 (2): 162–71. doi:10.1101/lm.63304.PMID 15054131.

25.  ^ a b Peniston EG, Kulkosky PJ (1989). “Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics”. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 13 (2): 271–9. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1989.tb00325.x.PMID 2524976.

26.  ^ a b Wahbeh H, Calabrese C, Zwickey H (2007). “Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects”. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine 13 (1): 25–32. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.6196PMID 17309374.

27.  ^ Ogilvie RD, Hunt HT, Tyson PD, Lucescu ML, Jeakins DB (1982). “Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report”. Perceptual and motor skills 55 (3 Pt 1): 795–808. PMID 7162915.

28.  ^ Korabel’nikova EA, Golubev VL (2001). “[Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry]” (in Russian). Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniia i meditsinskoĭ promyshlennosti Rossiĭskoĭ Federatsii, Vserossiĭskoe obshchestvo nevrologov Vserossiĭskoe obshchestvo psikhiatrov 101(12): 51–4. PMID 11811128.

29.  ^ Spoormaker VI, van den Bout J (2006). “Lucid dreaming treatment for nightmares: a pilot study”.Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 75 (6): 389–94. doi:10.1159/000095446PMID 17053341.

30.  ^ Saxby E, Peniston EG (1995). “Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms”. Journal of clinical psychology 51 (5): 685–93.doi:10.1002/1097-4679(199509)51:5<685::AID-JCLP2270510514>3.0.CO;2-KPMID 8801245.

31.  ^ Watson CG, Herder J, Passini FT (1978). “Alpha biofeedback therapy in alcoholics: an 18-month follow-up”. Journal of clinical psychology 34 (3): 765–9. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(197807)34:3<765::AID-JCLP2270340339>3.0.CO;2-5PMID 690224.

32.  ^ Loftus EF, Davis D (2006). “Recovered memories”. Annual review of clinical psychology 2: 469–98.doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095315PMID 17716079.

33.  ^ Le Scouarnec RP, Poirier RM, Owens JE, Gauthier J, Taylor AG, Foresman PA. (2001). “Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes”. Altern Ther Health Med. (Clinique Psych in Montreal, Quebec.) 7 (1): 58–63. PMID 11191043.

34.  ^ Padmanabhan R, Hildreth AJ, Laws D (2005). “A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery”. Anaesthesia 60 (9): 874–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04287.xPMID 16115248.

35.  ^ a b Harris, Bill (2002). Thresholds of the Mind. Centerpointe Press. Appendix 1, pp151–178. ISBN 0-9721780-0-7.

36.  ^ Berry SD, Seager MA (2001). “Hippocampal theta oscillations and classical conditioning”. Neurobiol Learn Mem 76 (3): 298–313. doi:10.1006/nlme.2001.4025PMID 11726239.

37.  ^ Seager MA, Johnson LD, Chabot ES, Asaka Y, Berry SD (2002). “Oscillatory brain states and learning: Impact of hippocampal theta-contingent training”Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (3): 1616–20.doi:10.1073/pnas.032662099PMID 11818559.

38.  ^ Griffin AL, Asaka Y, Darling RD, Berry SD (2004). “Theta-contingent trial presentation accelerates learning rate and enhances hippocampal plasticity during trace eyeblink conditioning”. Behav. Neurosci.118 (2): 403–11. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.118.2.403PMID 15113267.

39.  ^ Vernon D, Egner T, Cooper N, et al. (2003). “The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance”. International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 47 (1): 75–85. PMID 12543448.

40.  ^ http://idle.slashdot.org/story/10/07/15/166220/Sound-As-the-New-Illegal-Narcotic

Meditation References:

  1. ^ Venkatesh S, Raju TR, Shivani Y, Tompkins G, Meti BL. (1997) A study of structure of phenomenology of consciousness in meditative and non-meditative states. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;41(2): 149–53. PubMed Abstract PMID 9142560
  2. ^ Peng CK, Mietus JE, Liu Y, Khalsa G, Douglas PS, Benson H, Goldberger AL. (1999) Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques. Int J Cardiol. 1999 Jul 31;70(2):101–7. PubMed AbstractPMID 10454297
  3. ^ Lazar, S.W.; Bush, G.; Gollub, R. L.; Fricchione, G. L.; Khalsa, G.; Benson, H. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation” NeuroReport: Volume 11(7) 15 May 2000 pp. 1581–1585PubMed abstract PMID 10841380
  4. ^ Carlson LE, Ursuliak Z, Goodey E, Angen M, Speca M. (2001) The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up. Support Care Cancer. 2001 Mar;9(2):112-23.PubMed abstract PMID 11305069
  5. ^ “Train Your Mind Change Your Brain” by Sharon Begley pages 229-242, in the chapter “Transforming the Emotional Mind”
  6. ^ There has been a dramatic increase in the past 10 or 15 years or so of studies on the impact of meditation upon one’s health. Translator for The Dalai Lama, interviewed in a video here
  7. ^ Davidson, Richard J.; Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF, Urbanowski F, Harrington A, Bonus K, Sheridan JF. (2003 Jul-Aug). “Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation”. Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (4): 564–570.doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3PMID 12883106.
  8. ^ Physiological Effects of Transcendental Meditation by Wallace @http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/167/3926/1751 published in 1970!
  9. ^ Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Lipworth L, Burney R. (1985). “The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain”. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8 (2): 163–190. doi:10.1007/BF00845519.PMID 3897551.
  10. ^ The following was taken from MBSR… “Jon Kabat-Zinn has said that his program has nothing at all to do with Buddhism, it is not spiritually based, and is therefore open to everyone no matter what life circumstances they are in.[reference-> In this video Jon Kabat-Zinn can be seen giving a speech at Google Headquarters about mindfulness, including the benefits shown by scientific study, the practice and principles of mindfulness, and how it relates to modern life in general http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSU8ftmmhmw Mindfulness-based stress] MBSR is practiced by those old and young, sick and healthy, professionals and monks alike. Jon Kabat-Zinn has also said that the principles of mindfulness, on which MBSR is based, have been most clearly articulated by those in Buddhist traditions.[reference-> In this video Jon Kabat-Zinn can be seen giving a speech at Google Headquarters about mindfulness, including the benefits shown by scientific study, the practice and principles of mindfulness, and how it relates to modern life in general http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSU8ftmmhmw Mindfulness-based stress][reference->Jon also has said this in his 2 cd talk called "Mindfulness for Beginners"] Today mindfulness has gained widespread practice in the medical community, and has many modern applications in health science.
  11. ^ Grossman, P.; Niemann, L.; Schmidt, S.; Walach, H. (2004). “Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefitsA meta-analysis” (pdf). Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57 (1): 35–43.doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7PMID 15256293. Retrieved 2010-07-07. edit
  12. ^ .ref name=”flow”>Commentary: In the Zone: A Biobehavioral Theory of the Flow Experience
  13. ^ .ref name=”flow”>Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation
  14. ^ Bennett-Goleman, Tara, 2001. Emotional Alchemy: How the Mind can Heal the Heart, Harmony, 1st Edition: Jan 9, 2001, ISBN 978-0609607527
  15. ^ The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, Chapter Three
  16. ^ Sagan, Carl. The Dragons of Eden; Random House, New York. 1977
  17. ^ Social Anxiety and Social Phobia:Symptoms, Treatment and Support
  18. ^ Harvard University Gazette: Meditation found to increase brain size
  19. ^ Meditation Associated With Increased Grey Matter In The Brain
  20. ^ “Meditation boosts part of brain where ADD, addictions reside”Ars Technica. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
  21. ^ “Integrative body-mind training (IBMT) meditation found to boost brain connectivity”ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
  22. a b M. Beauregard & V. Paquette (2006). “Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns“.Neuroscience Letters (Elsevier) 405 (3): 186–90. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.06.060ISSN 0304-3940.PMID 16872743.
  23. ^ .ref name=”flow”>Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation
  24. a b c Lutz, Antoine. “Breakthrough study on EEG of meditation”. Retrieved 2006-08-14.
  25. ^ Bhattathiry, M.P.. “Neurophysiology of Meditation”. Retrieved 2006-08-14.
  26. ^ Chang, Kanf-Ming (2005-07-15). “Meditation EEG Interpretation based on novel fuzzy-merging strategies and wavelet features”. Retrieved 2006-08-14.
  27. ^ O’Nuallain, Sean. ““ Zero Power and Selflessness: What Meditation and Conscious Perception Have in Common””. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
  28. ^ Brown, Daniel, et al. “Differences in Visual Sensitivity Among Mindfulness Meditators and Non-Meditators”. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1984: 727-733.
  29. ^ Tloczynski, Joseph, et al., “Perception of Visual Illusions by Novice and Longer-Term Meditators”. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2000: 1021-1027.
  30. ^ Benson, H., “The relaxation response: therapeutic effect,” Science. 1997 Dec 5;278(5344):1694-5. PMID: 9411784
  31. a b c Meditation: An Introduction on the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s webpage, NCAAM is a subdivision of NIH. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/meditation/overview.htm#meditation
  32. ^ From a clinical study of twenty-seven long term meditators, Shapiro found that subjects reported significantly more positive effects than negative from meditation. However, of the twenty-seven subjects, seventeen (62.9%) reported at least one adverse effect, and two (7.4%) suffered profound adverse effects. Among these we find: relaxation-induced anxiety and panic; paradoxical increases in tension; less motivation in life; boredom; pain; impaired reality testing; confusion and disorientation; feeling ‘spaced out’; depression; increased negativity; being more judgmental; and, ironically, feeling addicted to meditationShapiro 1992, cited in Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto and Holmes, Jeremy. Meditation: concepts, effects and uses in therapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, Mar 2000, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p49, 10p
  33. ^ Turner, Robert P.; Lukoff, David; Barnhouse, Ruth Tiffany & Lu, Francis G. Religious or Spiritual Problem. A Culturally Sensitive Diagnostic Category in the DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1995; Vol.183, No. 7 435-444. Page 440.
  34. ^ Hayes, 1999, chap. 3; Metzner, 2005
  35. ^ Ospina p.130
  36. ^ Ospina MB, Bond TK, Karkhaneh M, Tjosvold L, Vandermeer B, Liang Y, Bialy L, Hooton N,Buscemi N, Dryden DM, Klassen TP. “Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research”. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155. (Prepared by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0023.) AHRQ Publication No. 07-E010. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 2007.
  37. ^ Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (December 2008). “Clinical trials of meditation practices in health care: characteristics and quality”. J Altern Complement Med 14 (10): 1199–213.doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0307PMID 19123875.
  38. ^ Manocha R, Black D, Ryan J, Stough C, Spiro D, [1] “This study demonstrates a skin temperature reduction on the palms of the hands during the experience of mental silence, arising as a result of a single 10 minute session of Sahaja yoga meditation.” [Changing Definitions of Meditation: Physiological Corollorary, Journal of the International Society of Life Sciences, Vol 28 (1), Mar 2010]

This list is provided courtesy of Wikipedia.org